Is Paper Truly Biodegradable? Factors for Degradation | Paper or Plastic..

In today’s world which is trying to be sustainable, understanding the biodegradability of materials is important. Paper, a ubiquitous and versatile product, holds a significant place in our daily lives for centuries but, is paper truly biodegradable? This is a big question that needs to be answered.

This article aims to explore the journey of paper from raw material to processing and production and then to waste management, exploring its impact on our ecosystem. The biodegradability of paper depends upon all these stages. These stages define either paper is biodegradable or non-biodegradable.

Sustainability is a pressing concern in today’s world where every natural resource is at risk. Sustainable paper production plays a vital role in minimizing the environmental impact of this versatile material. By adopting eco-friendly practices, the paper industry aims to meet the growing demand for paper while ensuring the long-term health of our planet.

Is Paper Truly Biodegradable?

The answer to this question depends upon the manufacturing process and the constituents of the paper. If the paper is made up of only pulp, it may take 2 weeks to almost 4-5 months. But if plastic is added as in case of paper cups, it would delay the decomposition and degradation. Similarly, glue, wax or any other adhesive material in case of sticky notes or waxed paper, affect the biodegradability of papers.

Wood Pulp

Wood Pulp, the primary raw material for paper production, is a renewable resource. This wood pulp is truly organic and takes 15 days to 100 days for complete decomposition. Responsible sourcing of this raw input involves carefully managing forests to ensure the sustainability of this valuable material. Through forest certification programs, Aforestation, Re-forestation, and sustainable forestry practices, the paper mills strives to maintain a balance between harvesting trees and promoting the growth of new ones.

To ensure the sustainability of paper production, responsible sourcing practices are essential. This involves working closely with forestry experts and local communities to protect sensitive ecosystems, preserve biodiversity, and promote tree conservation. By replanting harvested areas and implementing sustainable forest management plans, the paper industry contributes to the long-term health of our forests.

Chlorine-Free Paper Production

Traditionally, the paper manufacturing process involved the use of chlorine-based chemical compounds e.g. in Parchment Paper. These chlorine compounds pose environmental risks. However, the paper manufacturing industry has made significant advancements in chlorine-free production methods. By utilizing alternative bleaching agents and recycling wastewater, the paper industry minimizes the release of harmful pollutants and reduces its environmental footprint.

Chlorine is involved in ozone depletion. Once in the atmosphere, chlorine atoms react with ozone and broke it into O-Cl and Oxygen molecules. This O-Cl molecule again reacts with the Ozone molecule to form 2 oxygen molecules and the chlorine atom is again released to react with more ozone molecules. The process goes on and a single chlorine atom can degrade 100,000 ozone molecules.

Carbon Footprints of Paper

Compared to materials like plastic, rubber, or metal, paper has a relatively low carbon footprint. This is because trees absorb carbon dioxide from the atmosphere as they grow, making the paper a carbon-neutral material when sourced sustainably from the trees (sinks of carbon). By choosing paper over alternatives with higher carbon footprints, individuals and businesses can make a positive impact on climate change mitigation.

What is the Effect of Paper on Air Pollution and GHG Emission?

The paper mills has made significant progress in reducing air pollution and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and ultimately global warming. Modern paper mills are equipped with advanced emission control technologies, such as filters and scrubbers, to capture and reduce pollutants released during the manufacturing process.

Moreover, these sustainable practices help in the reduction of water pollution as less waste is dumped in landfills or as effluents to the water bodies. The use of renewable energy sources, such as biomass and solar power, helps further minimize the industry’s environmental impact.

Water is a crucial input in the paper manufacturing industry. The modern paper industry has taken steps to conserve and manage it efficiently. Advanced water management systems are implemented to minimize water usage and recycle wastewater. By reusing and treating water, the paper industry reduces its freshwater consumption and ensures that the effluent discharged meets environmental standards.

The concept of biodegradation and its importance

Biodegradation refers to the natural breakdown of organic materials by microorganisms over time. Paper, being predominantly composed of cellulose fibers derived from plants (organic source), is highly biodegradable. This natural process is essential for returning organic matter to the environment and thus maintaining ecological balance.

Microorganisms, such as bacteria and fungi, play a crucial role in the biodegradation of paper. These microorganisms secrete enzymes that break down the complex cellulose structure into simpler compounds, eventually converting paper into organic matter.

Factors Influencing Biodegradation

Certain factors support the process of biodegradation such as;

1. Moisture

Adequate moisture is essential for the biodegradation of paper. Microorganisms require a certain level of moisture to thrive and break down the cellulose fibers effectively. Moisture creates a favorable environment for microbial activity and enzymatic reactions, promoting the decomposition process. There is always a critical moisture level for different biological activities.

2. Temperature

The rate of biodegradation is influenced by temperature. Higher temperatures generally accelerate microbial activity and enzymatic reactions, leading to a faster degradation process but to a certain extent. However, extreme temperatures can also have adverse effects on the microbial population. High temperatures may cause the death of the microbes, either bacteria or fungus, affecting their ability to break down paper effectively.

3. Organic Matter Content

The accelerated degradation process is due to the presence of organic matter content in the paper in the form of cellulose. This cellulose and fiber contribute to paper’s biodegradation. Microorganisms work effectively at a specific C: N. The best C: N is 24:1 for the degradation process.

There is a direct relationship between carbon content and microbial activity. The source of carbon and energy is provided by the organic compounds present in the paper. The higher the organic matter content, the more favorable the conditions for microbial decomposition.

C:N Ratio

C: N ratio for microbes sustainability is 8:1

C: N ratio for proper decomposition is 24:1

4. Availability of oxygen

Aerobic microorganisms require oxygen for their metabolic activity. Adequate oxygen supply enhances the biodegradation of paper, especially in well-aerated environments. This air is present in the pores of soil and other decomposing material.

If there is a limited supply of oxygen, anaerobic bacteria carry out the process of biodegradation. However, the process may be slower and produce different byproducts as well. Some anaerobic bacteria are Clostridium, Actinomyces, and Bacteroides.

5. pH Level

The pH level of the environment can influence the activity and growth of microorganisms involved in biodegradation. Different microorganisms thrive in different pH ranges. Paper is generally biodegradable within a neutral to slightly acidic pH range, as this supports the growth of a wide range of cellulose-degrading microorganisms. This range of pH is called the threshold pH level.

6. Presence of Inhibitors

Some substances or compounds are used for coating and dying the paper during processing and manufacturing. These chemicals can hinder the biodegradation of paper. They interfere with the growth of microbial colonies and may slow down the decomposition process in turn. Some heavy metals are also used in the dying process. The presence of toxic substances or heavy metals can also have detrimental effects on microbial populations.

7. Microbial Diversity

The diversity and abundance of microbial populations in the environment play a significant role in the paper’s biodegradation. A diverse microbial community increases the likelihood of encountering microorganisms capable of efficiently breaking down cellulose fibers. A healthy and balanced microbial ecosystem contributes to effective paper degradation.

Paper Cups: A Sustainability Dilema

Recognizing the need for more sustainable solutions to environmental problems, an innovation emerges in the form of Paper Cups. The paper cup industry has emerged with advancements and aims to improve cup recyclability, reduce waste production, and promote a circular economy.

Paper Cups -

Paper Cups: Image by Tomáš Sova from Pixabay

Paper cups have gained popularity for being lightweight, moisture proof, convenient, and portable. However, their production and disposal pose environmental challenges that need to be addressed. Understanding the environmental impact of paper cups is crucial for making informed choices and promoting sustainable alternatives. The paper cup industry poses the following environmental and ecological impacts;

Paper Cup Manufacturing: Energy Intensive Process

The manufacturing process of paper cups is a completed process involving different stages. These stages include; sourcing raw materials, pulping, paperboard production, cup forming, and designing and printing. Each stage contributes to energy consumption, water usage, and the release of pollutants into the environment.

The extraction of wood fibers and the processing of paperboard require significant amounts of water, energy, and chemicals. The use of these resources is energy intensive and leads to the generation of wasteful by-products and pollution.

Plastic Coating and Lining

Many paper cups are lined with a thin layer of plastic, typically Polyethylene (PE) and Polystyrene (PS). This coating helps to provide insulation, increase plasticity, and strength, and prevent leakage. While this plastic coating improves cup functionality, it presents challenges for biodegradation and recycling as well

The combination of paper and plastic makes it difficult to separate the materials during the recycling process, limiting the recyclability of plastic-coated cups. As a result, a significant portion of these cups ends up in landfills, contributing to waste accumulation and resource depletion.

Plastic Coated Cups;

Image by PB-DigitalCreative from Pixabay

To address the environmental impact of paper cups in the form of landfills, consumers can make conscious choices. They can opt for cups made from 100% post-consumer recycled paper. This will reduce the demand for virgin raw materials and will promote a circular economy. Additionally, choosing cups that are certified as compostable or biodegradable can help divert waste from landfills and encourage a more sustainable approach to cup usage.

What are the Sustainable Innovation in Paper Industry?

Following Innovations can help in either making paper biodegradable, or some other alternatives to limit the environmental pollution;

Paper Cup Recycling Technologies

Efforts are underway to develop and implement advanced recycling technologies that can effectively separate the paper and plastic components of cups. Specialized pulping and separation techniques are among the process that is showing promising results in improving the recyclability of plastic-coated cups.

Compostable and biodegradable cup

Compostable and biodegradable cups offer a more sustainable option compared to traditional paper cups. These cups are typically made from plant-based materials, such as corn starch or sugarcane fiber, which break down more readily even in natural environments. By choosing these alternatives, consumers can contribute to reducing waste and supporting the development of a circular economy.

Reusable cups

Encouraging the use of reusable cups is an effective way to minimize the environmental impact of single-use cups. By embracing refillable cups made from durable materials like china clay, stainless steel, or glass, individuals can significantly reduce waste generation and conserve resources. Coffee shops and food cafes can play a vital role in this approach. They can also offer incentives and discounted prices for customers who bring their reusable cups.

Which is Better For the Environment: Paper or Plastic?

Following table can answer this question;


  • Readily Biodegradable
  • Renewable Source – Forest
  • Non-Toxic
  • Degraded to organic matter/Humus


  • Slowly Degradable
  • Non-renewable Source – Petroleum
  • Toxic
  • Degraded to Micro-plastic
Plastic Cups -

Image by Tania Van den Berghen from Pixabay


Paper is indeed biodegradable but lining it with a plastic coating, excessive and unwise use, and disposing of it to encourage landfills is highly discouraged. Conscious consumer choices, wise use, and advancements in recycling technologies can pay the way toward sustainability. Some countries and major cities are moving towards paperless office management. Promoting education and awareness are vital steps toward a greener future. Let us all join hands in preserving our environment by making sustainable choices and optimizing the use of paper.


A paper can biodegrade by the action of microbes (bacteria and fungus) in 15 to 100 days. All it depends upon the process of manufacturing and the components of the paper material.

Yes paper can decompose, but the in the compost pile, it will take more time. A single paper will be degraded easily.

Paper is biodegradable and environment friendly, but manufacturing process require wood pulp that cause deforestation. The manufacturing process also causes air pollution. Thus paper is blessing as well bad for the environment. With the increase in its demand up to 400 percent, 100 million tress are cut down every year to meet it. Transportation of the wood also results in air pollution.

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